Infant Lab Terms from Encyclopedia Chapter

Some  of my notes from Bahrick, Hollich – Encyclopedia Chapter:

Intermodal perception/intersensory perception – the perception of unitary objects or events that make information simultaneously available to more than one sense

Intersensory redundancy: when the same amodal info is simultaneously available through difference senses

Intersensory redundancy hypothesis: amodal properties are detected easier in multimodal stimulation than in unimodal stimulation; modality specific properties are detected easier in unimodal stimulation; “facilitating attention to amodal information but impairing attention to modality-specific information in multimodal events”

Event perception: amodal relations provide basis for selecting unitary sights and sounds

Audiovisual perception: synchronized sight and sound

Speech perception: language units visual with auditory stimulation

Face-voice perception: broad during first year and narrows as infants have more experience with human faces than other faces; infants able to match unfamiliar faces and voices based on age and gender of speaker (i.e. males have deeper voices than children); link shape of a person’s mouth with sounds they make

Self-perception: visual-motor perception – infants can discriminate between self and others

Amodal information: not specific to a particular sense; can be characterized: time, space, and intensity

Modality-specific information: one particular modality (color, pattern, temperature)

Visual-tactile perception: information relating to shape, texture, substance, and size of object invariant across visual and tactile stimulation; tactile exploration facilitates their perception of amodal, 3-D shape of objects

Visual-motor perception: infants able to perceive their own body motion by detecting amodal info; proprioception is information about self-motion provided by feedback by muscles, joints, and vestibular system; infants take amodal info between proprioception experience of their own limbs motions and of visual image in a video to make a discrimination between self and other; visually guided reaching; posture-control

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Perceptual Development: Intermodal Perception

More notes/summaries from lab:

Intermodal perception refers to perception of information from objects and events that is available simultaneously to multiple senses. Philosophers proposed that we need to integrate information across different senses before we could perceive an object or an event.

Piaget proposed that integration took place by interacting with objects and coordinating information across the different senses. Gibson proposed that the senses work in a unified perceptual system and that different forms of sensory stimulation were necessary to perceive unified events.  His view was different from the integration view because he proposed that the senses are unified at birth – not that the senses are separate at birth.

As infants grow older, they learn to perceive subtler differences and complex objects and events in their environment, moving away from just simply detecting general features of unified multimodal events.

Evidence supports the belief that temporal synchrony between sights and sounds are “the glue” that binds information across the senses. For example, when someone claps, we detect synchrony, rhythm, and tempo. We look at the event as a whole – we don’t pay attention to the sights, sounds, or tactile stimulation separately.

Amodal information that is provided and is synchronized across more than one sense modality is called intersensory information. An infant will notice the intersensory redundancy between the face and the voice of a person speaking before they notice modality-specific information, such as pitch of the voice. When redundancy is not available, an infant will look at nonredundant information, such as the appearance of a person’s face. Since selective attention is the basis for what we perceive, learn, and memorize, intersensory redundancy is highly influential in organizing early perceptual, cognitive, social, and emotional development.

Intersensory redundancy allows the development of more specific processing. As infants grow older, detection of sight-sound relations allows detection of more specific amodal relations, such as tempo, and this then allows the detection of arbitrary, modality-specific relations, such as pitch and color.

Protoconversation is the intercoordinated mutual exchange of sounds, movements, and touch; it’s the foundation for communication and social development.

Speech is inherently multimodal, due to the coordinating of facial, vocal, and gestural information; audiovisual redundancy promotes learning, as well.

Proprioception is information about self-movement based on feedback from muscles, joints, and balance system. By three to five months, infants can discriminate between a live video of their own legs kicking verses one of another infant by detecting temporal synchrony and spatial correspondence between their proprioceptive feedback and the display of their own legs kicking.

References:
Bahrick, L.E., & Lickliter, R. (2009). Perceptual development: Intermodal Perception. Encyclopedia of Perception, 2, 753 – 756.

Intermodal Perception

More notes/summaries from lab:

Shared confusion and interest relating to the specificity of the different senses and the overlap between them allowed scientists to create different proposals for understanding how perception works. It was proposed that different forms of sensory information do not disrupt perception, but rather they’re vital to intermodal perception (stimulation that is simultaneously present for more than one sense). Amodal information, an invariant for intermodal perception, is information that is not attached to a specific particular sense modality and is shared across more than one sense; it’s redundant across the different senses due to temporal, spatial, and intensity patterns. When amodal information is available through different senses at the same time, it’s called intersensory redundancy. Modality specific information is information that is only perceived by one sense (i.e. color can only be perceived visually).

We can only pay attention to selective, small portion of stimulation available, as irrelevant information stays in the background. Our senses take in redundant information about events and objects in a way that it’s not excessive. This salient intersensory redundancy is fundamental for the development of perception in infancy. Sensitivity to redundancy across the different senses promotes attention to unified events when presented with competing sounds and movements. As we grow older, the sensory information goes through finer and finer levels of stimulation (i.e. general perception of a person walking to ultimately their appearance). Perceptual narrowing occurs with progressive improvements in perceptual discrimination; it allows people to focus on relevant aspects of stimulation and ignore those that are irrelevant. As time goes on, perceptual development focuses on becoming increasingly more specific.

Infants are sensitive to audiovisual information and can detect the temporal synchrony between sights and sounds of an object’s impact, among other things. Temporal synchrony is thought to be the “glue” that binds information across auditory and visual stimulation. Amodal relations such as temporal synchrony, rhythm, and tempo are the basis for selecting unitary sights and sounds; it eventually allows processing of temporal microstructure and modality-specific properties such as color, pattern, and pitch. The intersensory redundancy hypothesis suggests that redundant information is highly salient and attracts amodal, redundantly specified properties of information.

Infants are able to recognize other people’s emotional expressions and use them as information about external events. This skill, called social referencing, can allow an infant to discriminate an adult’s emotional expression in order to connecting it the adult’s feelings towards a situation or object. Audiovisual synchrony can help in word-learning and in selective attention.

References:
Bahrick, L. E. & Hollich, G. (2008). Intermodal perception. Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development, 2, 164 – 176.

Perceptual Development: Amodal Perception

In order to be a research assistant in the Infant Development Lab I volunteer at, I have to read articles written by the lab director and summarize them. Studies and concepts discussed are usually very neat (my personal favorite is the ventriloquist effect). Hopefully my summaries don’t come across as too choppy. Here’s one I wrote for amodal perception:

Amodal perception is perception of information that is redundant across multiple senses, and it includes changes in three types of stimulation: time, space and intensity. Because all events occur across time and space, all events have amodal information. For example, speech provides changes in audiovisual synchrony, tempo, rhythm and intonation that are common facial movements and vocal sounds. Self-motion produces information from muscles and joints, and that information is synchronized and shares temporal and intensity changes with the sight of self-motion. Amodal has also been used to refer to perception in the absence of direction information from one particular sense modality.

The concept of amodal perception dates back to more than 2,000 years ago. Since then, philosophers have proposed that sensations have to be interpreted across the senses before a person could perceive meaningful objects and events. A more three-dimensional approach was created by developmental psychologist when they stated the process was developed gradually through experience with objects. Gibson later proposed that different forms of sensory stimulation were not a problem for perception, but rather necessary for perceiving unitary objects and events – our senses work together as a unified perceptual system to pick up information that is common among the senses.

Amodal information is highly salient to humans and animals, especially during early development. Development of some skills depend on the detection of amodal information, such as being able to detect temporal synchrony, rhythm and tempo, as well as being able to detect emotion. Amodal information simplifies and organizes incoming sensory stimulation, which allows us to perceive unitary, multimodal events.

References:
Bahrick, L.E. (2009). Perceptual development: Amodal perception. Encyclopedia of Perception, 1, 44-46.

Holy Ghost Tour

I finally got to see Joyce Manor and Modern Baseball perform. With Thin Lips opening the show, the venue was filled with good energy and good performances. (Unedited photos, soon-to-be edited and uploaded via Teenlink.)

First Show in a Couple of Months

I finally went to a show after months of being too tired or busy with school work to go to one (still disappointed I didn’t see Beyoncé perform because I had to study for my final for my human bio lab). I got to see: Diet Cig, who were super energetic; Brick + Mortar, who were also energetic but more “weird”; and The Front Bottoms, whom I’ve been wanting to see since high school.

Here are a couple of pictures I took via Teenlink that will go up in a photo gallery on its website later:

Modern Baseball Premiere “Holy Ghost”; Talk Growing Up and Calming Down

I really started to listen to MoBo a lot end of junior year/senior year of high school; haven’t really been keeping up them since college started. I think the new album is filling me up with a lot of sappy, nostalgic feelings. They’re probably one of those bands I’ll always be thankful for, even if I stop listened to them. Have to give it a couple of more listens to really pay attention to the lyrics, but sounds pretty good.